Historical Notes Covering Plate Two

These notes are taken from the Genealogy and History of the Guadagni family by Luigi Passerini, and translated from Italian by Francesco Carloni. Revised and updated by Antonio, Isabella, and Vieri Guadagni.

The number before the name refers to the number on the family tree

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1. Migliore

Migliore was a wealthy banker. We can still find many documents recording the large loans granted by the Guadagni firm. He took his brothers, Zato and Piero, into partnership with him. He also became a banking partner with his cousins, Lotto and Filippone, of Migliore of Panza.

He built a palace for himself in the parish of S. Michele Visdomini. When the palace was destroyed by fire in 1297, he rebuilt it immediately on the old foundations. He built a chapel in the church of the Annunziata. He dedicated it to S. Martino, whom he chose as the patron saint protector of his family. Later, for reasons unknown to me, that chapel was given to the Villani family and another one was assigned to the Guadagni.

Migliore’s political career began in 1289. In that year he became a Prior for the first time. It seemed he was one of the most active opponents of the old nobility, in his efforts to create a republic on democratic foundations. He helped Giano della Bella in his reform of 1293. This reform created the office of Gonfalonier of Justice. The gonfalonier had the executive power in Florence and his term lasted only two months at a time to avoid the possibility of becoming too powerful and thus turning into a dictator. The reform also specified that one had to be a member of a guild in order to be elected to public office. This measure was against the nobility, who often lived in their castles or palaces without working. The reform also published laws against the old nobility, which were called “gli ordinamenti della giustizia” (Ordinances of Justice).

Migliore had the honor of being the second gonfalonier. He held the office for two months, starting on April 15, 1293. When his term was over, his successor, Dino Compagni, sent him to Fucecchio, to arrange the peace treaty with Pisa, which Migliore had prepared while he was gonfalier. He also signed the peace treaty on July 12. In the riots of 1295, Migliore parted with Giano della Bella, because he thought that Giano’s great appeal to the mob, whom he could guide as he wanted, was not good for the republican character of the Florentine state. The chronicler Compagni relates that Migliore was one of the citizens who contributed the most to force or convince Giano to go into exile. In the month of April, he was sent as ambassador to Pope Boniface VIII, to recount about Giano della Bella being sent into exile. With him were Ponzardo dei Pulci, Vanni dei Mozzi and Lapo Saltarelli. Historians say that these were four of the best and wisest citizens Florence had at that time. In the same year, 1295, Migliore and a few others were entrusted with appointing the “capitano del popolo” (captain of the people). The following year he was part of a commission charged with identifying and trying to recover public properties. Later that same year, he was Prior of the Guilds. He was consul of the Bankers’ Guild in 1301. He was prior for the third time in 1302. He died about 1310.


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2. Gherardo

Gherardo spent most of his life as a soldier. He was so proud of this that he wrote in his will that he wanted a portrait of himself in armor sculpted on his tomb. He also had special concern for his arms and armor, which he left to some of his servants, probably to those who had been with him in his military campaigns.

He was Gonfalonier of Justice for two months, starting on April 15, 1319. Nothing noteworthy happened during his term because at that time Florence was at peace with everyone. In 1326, the city of Prato elected him captain of the people and governor of the city.

It was while he held that office that, on March 22, 1327, he asked his cousin Lorenzo di Zato to go to Migliorozzo Guadagni and tell him that he, Gherardo, and his wife, Lippa, wanted to make peace with him and forgive him. Migliorozzo had wounded him and put poison in their pancakes. This action saved Migliorozzo from a more severe punishment, as we saw in the preceding chapter. Lippa died nine days later, however, from the consequences of that poisoning.

The following year, the Duke of Calabria, whom the Florentines had temporarily chosen as their ruler, decided to attack Castruccio, ruler of Lucca and Pisa. The duke greatly valued Gherardo’s military experience, so he ordered him to organize a large company of cavalrymen, to be the backbone of the army. Gherardo participated in the campaign with a high commanding rank and rendered noteworthy services to his city. He did the same in the war of the following year. However he was severely wounded and suffered great pains for many months, until he died in October 1329.

In his will, drawn up by Ser Ciallo of Dino, he asked to be buried in a military way in the chapel of S. Martino, built by his father in the church of the Annunziata. He also stated that, should his daughters ever want to become nuns, his inheritance should be used to found a convent, dependent on the Servite monks. However, I have never found any trace of his daughters’ existence.


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3. Matteo

One author who wrote before me on the Guadagni family said that Matteo was that Guadagni, mentioned by Giovanni Villani, who died fighting bravely near Cerbaia in Valdipesa, in a skirmish against the Germans of the Emperor Henry VII. The same author states that Matteo was part of the company of the Band, a company in which the bravest young men of Florence volunteered.

I do not deny that he was among these Knights of the Band, or that he fought strenuously against the army of the Emperor. Proof of this is that his name is also mentioned in the famous sentence of 1313, where he is declared rebel to the Empire. However, I do not agree that he was killed in the above mentioned battle because there is proof that he was still living in 1315. In that year, he was a “feditore” in the famous battle of Montecatini. He probably died in 1319, as his will bears that date.


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4. Migliore

Migliore’s name can be found in official documents for the first time on September 27, 1342. On that day, he and his brothers signed the peace agreement with the Aliotti family, after the Duke of Athens, ruler of Florence, ordered them to do so. The duke also wanted them to promise to make peace with the Falconieri family, which the Guadagni did on January 1, 1343. The duke had urged them to do so because the Guadagni and other families, powerful in wealth, in relations, and in influential friends, kept the city in turmoil and made blood flow in its streets.

In 1343, the people of Florence fought to free themselves from the yoke of the foreign duke. Migliore Guadagni and his family were among the most zealous opponents of the duke in the famous July 26 uprising.

In 1344, Migliore was sent as ambassador to the League of Monteloro. In 1347, along with Simone Peruzzi, Gherardo de’ Pazzi and Biligiardo della Tosa, he had to go to Montepulciano and other towns subject to Florence to appease the discontent caused by unpopular heavy taxes. He seems to have been very skilled in public administration, because in 1351, I find him, together with other citizens, charged with regulating taxes more equitably. Later, I find him elected city treasurer. In 1354, Migliore was charged with assigning 3,000 crossbowmen to various castles in the territory of the Republic, to protect it from outside aggression. However, the real reason of this mission was to keep the crossbowmen sheltered and fed far from the city’s walls, so they would be less of a burden on the budget.

The following year he was among the twelve “buonomini”. In 1356, Migliore was Ward Captain. In the months of March and April 1357, he was a Prior. His priorate was noteworthy for having built a flood-gate outside of the gate of S. Niccolo’, and ordered the construction of public mills inside the city walls, so as to have flour and bread in case the city was besieged during war. Before this initiative, wheat had to be ground in mills far from Florence, in the upper Valdarno.

After the expulsion of the Duke of Athens from Florence and the victory of the middle and lower classes over the wealthy class, the city was again divided into two opposing factions. Their leaders were two wealthy families: the Ricci on one side and the Albizzi on the other. The Ricci wanted a very democratic form of government in which every citizen could participate actively; however they demanded the consent of the Holy Roman Emperor and his protection. The Albizzi also wanted a popular regime, but one in which only the wealthy could actively hold public office, thus an outright oligarchy. On the other hand, they did not want to ask for the consent or the protection of the Emperor, They thought that doing so would humiliate the independence of their city.

My task is not to relate the story of these struggles. I will only summarize the main facts to explain more clearly the part the Guadagni family had in them. The Ricci knew that the Albizzi descended from Ghibelline ancestors. In 1358, they proposed to re-enact an old law called “dell’ammonire” (interdiction from office). This law stated that all citizens who had Ghibelline ancestors, and thus “were not real Guelphs” could be accused publicly or in private. If the denunciation was confirmed by trustworthy witnesses, they were not allowed to defend themselves but were sentenced to the perpetual exclusion from public office. Strangely enough, Piero degli Albizzi enthusiastically accepted this proposition. He thought he could turn it against his rivals and he asked that it be carried out by the captains of the Guelph party.

In that period, Migliore was captain. He was a friend of the Albizzi. His colleagues shared his political opinions and his adherence to the Albizzi party. So they decided to apply the old law with extreme severity against their common enemies. The historian Matteo Villani records that they accused many great, well known and popular citizens, among the best of Florence, in their secret meetings. Guadagni and his friends were able to “ammonire” (exclude from public office) seventy of the most respected Florentine citizens. Not yet satisfied, they accused and excluded even more.

At this point many Florentines began to criticize the unfair law and its unjust executors, so much so that the captains themselves had to restrain their fury. When he finished his term, Migliore had to leave the city for a while to save himself from the anger of his fellow citizens. Along with Piero degli Albizzi, who was just as unpopular, he asked to be sent somewhere as ambassador. So he was sent to Soci, in the Casentino, in December 1359, to take possession of the castle that Count Guidi had sold to the Republic of Florence. The following year he held the office of Treasurer of the Monte [ed. note: Office of the Public Debt] and then that of Vicar of Valdinievole.

One of the main goals of the Republic of Florence was to increase its territory by taking advantage of turmoil and strife in neighboring states. One of these favorable occasions seemed to be the disagreements reigning among the members of the Belforti family, who were the tyrants of the city of Volterra.

Vieri, Migliore’s son, was sent there to fan the fire. He did so well that the little flame became a huge blaze and Volterra was torn apart by a civil war. At this point, the leaders of Florence decided to take advantage of the situation and intervene. The Florentines helped the weaker side; however, Messer Bocchino, head of the other faction, knew that he could by no means win against the powerful city of Florence. So he decided to sell his city to Pisa, a strong rival of Florence. When Vieri learned of Bocchino’s plan, he put all his energy and cunning into convincing the people of Volterra to revolt and attack the tyrant in his palace. As soon as Bocchino was captured, Vieri wisely reformed the government of the city to the advantage of Florence. The new government decided that the fortress of the city was to be given into the custody of Florence for ten years and that Migliore, Vieri’s father, was to be appointed Captain of the People, with vast authority, and also Gonfalonier of Justice and Podesta’ of Volterra, until someone else would come to hold that office in December.

One of Migliore’s first acts of government was to carry out the death sentence against Bocchino Belforti, because he felt the people wanted it. Then he sent all the other members of the Belforti family into exile, which brought peace and quiet back to the city and eliminated the cause of future strife. The Government of Florence appointed him and other citizens to reform the state of Volterra in order to consolidate their dominion over it. He seems to have done well in their eyes, because with the decree of November 28, 1361, he gained the perpetual privilege of carrying all manner of arms and was made podesta’ of the City of s. Gimignano for the usual term of six months.

In January 1336, along with Amerigo Cavalcanti, Piero degli Albizzi and Gherardo dei Buondelmonti, Migliore was sent as ambassador to various towns of the lower Valdarno and Valdinievole to gather troops and prepare for the war against Pisa which was scheduled for the spring. He was prior of the months of May and June. The City Council of Todi elected him Captain of the People in July of the same year, and when his term was over, he was re-elected for another semester. As soon as he returned to Florence, he was appointed Officer of the Condotta (ed. note: in charge of hiring soldiers), and in 1365 he was elected to the office of the twelve “buonomini”. Starting on May 15, 1366, he was podesta’ of Orvieto for six months. In 1367, he was given the vicariate of Valdinievole, with great authority in matters of war. In 1368 he was one of the sixteen Ward captains.

He was Gonfalonier of Justice the first two months of 1369. In that period Emperor Charles IV, driven away from Siena, prosecuted the Florentines for some territories they had taken from their enemies and which he declared belonged to the Holy Roman Empire. He knew how avaricious the Emperor was, so he decided to settle matters with money and he was successful.

In January 1370, Florence recaptured the territory of S.Miniato and Migliore was sent there to reform the government. After having completed this task satisfactorily, he was sent to the Valdarno to gather wheat, because there was scarcity of it in Florence.

As a result of his activities , Migliore had become very influential in the public administration. According to what the historian Marchionne of Coppo Stefani records, it was all Migliore’s merit if, in1372, to subdue the arrogance of the warring factions and to show how even-minded they were, the government of Florence ordered that Piero degli Albizzi and Uguccione dei Ricci, leaders of the two opposing parties, along with two other members of each family, could not be elected to the public office nor could they come near the government palace, the captain’s palace or to the residence of the podesta’.

A committee of ten citizens, called the Ten of Freedom, was created to oversee that no sects or secret meetings would be organized in the city. Migliore was elected among the ten. However, I must say his endeavors in the matter were not very pertinent with what should have been the committee’s goals. He convinced Alessandro and Bartolommeo degli Albizzi to separate from their family and to start a new family called degli Alessandri. Moreover he worked to give Piero degli Albizzi the possibility of indirectly exerting the same political influence he had before, even though he did not have the legal title to do so anymore.

In July 1372, Migliore was elected Captain of the Guard of Pistoia. However, on January 1 of the following year, he left the position to be Gonfalonier of Justice in Florence for two months. During his term in government, he did nothing worthy of notice except for successfully continuing the war against the powerful Ubaldini in the Mugello Valley. He had already conducted that war the year before while he was officer of the Alps [ed. note: a magistracy created in 1350 to administer the Florentine Apennines]. On the request of the citizens of Pistoia, he returned to that city in November of the same year to reform its government. For the same purpose he returned again in 1376.

In July of that year, as Commissary of the Republic, Migliore was given the responsibility of assisting Ridolfo da Varano, captain general of the Florentine army, who had been sent to help Bologna. The city of Bologna was threatened by British hordes, conducted by the ferocious cardinal of Geneva, envoy of Pope Gregory XI, who was at war with Florence at that time. Acting wisely, Varano was able to force the enemy to attack someone else. However, Migliore managed to discover a plot, whose goal was to open the gates of the city to the enemy army. He punished the conspirators with extreme severity. He left Bologna to join the government of the Republic, where he had been appointed Gonfalonier of Justice for the first two months of 1377, As soon as his term was over, he returned to Bologna and then traveled across all of Romagna and Lombardy, for matters pertaining to the aforementioned war. He spent most of that year in such embassies.

Elsewhere, I mentioned that Migliore, when he was captain of the Guelph party, began to apply the law of “ammonire” very severely. Many respectable citizens were declared unfit for public office because of very minor or false pretexts, and more often because of private grudges. I must add as years went by, Migliore’s ferocity knew no limits. Historians remember him as one of the most ferocious enforcers of that law. For that reason, his colleagues, who formed a clique, would often elect him as one of the captains.

When he was Gonfalonier of Justice in 1377, he was asked to make the enforcement of the law more equitable and less arbitrary. However, his concessions were illusory and the goal everyone desired was not attained. The discontented went for help to the “committee of eight”. This committee was formed during the war against Pope Gregory XI and was very popular because of the energetic way it went about performing its task. But all legal actions were of no effect against Migliore and his friends. At this point, the people of Florence revolted, on June 22, 1378, and rushed to burn and plunder the houses of the prominent members of the Guelph party. Migliore’s palace, located next to the Loggia dei Pazzi in via del Corso di San Piero Maggiore (on the corner of Borgo degli Albizzi) was burned down.

The rebels did not deem Migliore’s punishment adequate enough, so they ordered that he be excluded from public office forever. This did not frighten Migliore, however, who remained in Florence. He was suspected of taking part in a plot against the government of the Republic and was incarcerated in October. He was freed shortly after because no evidence was found to convict him. The mob, however, accused the podesta’(mayor or supreme magistrate of a city), Fantino Zorzi, of being incapable or corrupt for not having convicted Migliore.

At this point, Migliore thought it would be safer to leave the city and he went into voluntary exile. He did not engage in any hostile action against his native Florence. On February 18, 1380, the government of the Republic decreed that his exclusion from public office be reduced to three years, to reward his loyal behavior.

The city of Fermo asked Migliore to be their podesta’ in 1380. Meanwhile, in Florence the upper class party overthrew the lower-class guild regime. The old ways were restored and all the condemnations of 1378 were annulled. Migliore was then able to return to his city, where he was restored to all the offices of the city.

He was immediately employed and, in 1382 was given the responsibility of visiting the main fortresses of the territory of Florence to improve their defensive system. In January and February 1383, he was again elected Gonfalonier of Justice. Nothing noteworthy happened during his government because Florence was at peace with everyone. However, in May, a violent plague broke out in Florence and many people died. Migliore moved to Friuli, in Northern Italy, hoping to save his life. Nevertheless he died of the disease on July 28.


New biography of Migliori Guadagni, written by contemporary historian Raffaella Zaccaria for the Biographical Dictionary of the Italians of Treccani Encyclopedia.

Please click here for new biography.


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5. Vieri

Vieri, of Migliore, had a very important part in preparing and encouraging the inhabitants of Volterra to revolt against Bocchino Belforti, tyrant of the city. After Bocchino’s downfall, Vieri was instrumental in getting Volterra to submit to Florence in 1361. To reward him for these deeds, the government of the Republic awarded him the privilege of bearing arms. He could not enjoy this privilege for long, however, because he died young in 1368.


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6. Bernardo

Bernardo was born in 1367. As soon as he was old enough to hold public office, according to the law, he was elected Ward Captain. The following year, in 1395, he was among the twelve “buonomini”. He was Ward Captain again in 1409 and 1411 and “buonomino” in 1404, 1415 and 1422.

We believe he demonstrated great intelligence even in his youth because it is quite out of the ordinary in the history of the Republic of Florence to find a young man 26 years old, like Bernardo, chosen by the general assembly of the people to be a member of a special commission (balia) charged in 1393 with reforming most of the public administration of the city. Even if we believe he was chosen because of the influence of the Albizzi, we cannot deny his outstanding wisdom.

From his youth he adhered to the Albizzi party. Through him, the latter hoped to strike out at the Alberti family, who were leaders of the opposite faction. All his life Bernardo gave proof of his loyalty to the Albizzi family. As long as they had the power to do so, Messer Maso and Messer Rinaldo, the two most influential members of the Albizzi family of his time, gave him very important assignments. This shows the great respect they had for him.

In 1395, he was Prior for the first time. In 1396, he was appointed Captain of all the Florentine Romagna. On April 1, 1400, he took up the office of Captain of Pistoia, a post that was considered very important in those days. He kept it until November. He was Prior a second time in 1402.

In the same year he was sent to S. Miniato to be Vicar of the city for all the lower Valdarno. He was still holding that office in May of the following year when he tried to end the war against Pisa. He initiated secret dealings with certain citizens of Pisa to have them open one of the gates of the city to the Florentine army. However this activity was fruitless because the plot was discovered in time by the authorities of Pisa.

In May 1406, along with Antonio degli Alessandri, he was sent as ambassador to Piombino. As soon as he returned to Florence he was chosen to meet with the King of France, Charles VI. He was to explain to the king why it was necessary for Florence to war against Pisa and that the Florentine government had no intention of displeasing him by doing so. However, while the Florentine ambassadors were crossing the territory of the Duke of Bourgogne, they were arrested and imprisoned. In fact, the citizens of Pisa had made this French Duke their ruler. Moreover the citizens of Pisa wanted to avenge themselves of an affront the Florentines had recently given. It happened that when the Florentine commissaries were in the field outside the walls of Pisa, a herald from Pisa, who had come out to talk to them, told them in an insolent manner that they had better stop any hostile activity against Pisa. At this, the commissaries had the herald captured and thrown into the Arno River. Now, in retaliation, Bernardo and the other emissaries were incarcerated in a French dungeon. The Government of Florence had to send Bonaccorso Pitti to Bourgogne to ask for the release of their ambassadors. The release was obtained with much difficulty and only after the death of the Duke.

Thus Bernardo returned to Florence in April 1408 and stayed there quietly for two years. Nevertheless, during this period he was very active in the city councils.

In February 1410, Bernardo was sent to Bologna as ambassador to Pope Alexander V. He was to tell the Pope that it would be wise for him to return to Rome, which, mostly through Florentine efforts, had been recaptured from Ladislao, King of Naples. Moreover, this move would smother any hopes of success entertained by the partisans of Gregory XII, Alexander’s rival for the papal throne.

While he was governing the Republic as Gonfalonier of Justice during the first two months of 1411, he made peace with King Ladislao. As a result of this peace, Florence saw the towns of Cortona, Pierle and Mercatale added to its territory.

Another main act of his term was the creation of the Council of the Two Hundred. Only the citizens who had held office in the three most important magistracies [the Signoria or priorate, the sixteen Ward captains, and the twelve “Buonomini”] could be a member of it. This council was to examine the deliberations made by the government of the Republic and by the committees, and then pass them on to the Council of One Hundred Thirty One. If the latter Council approved them, the deliberations had to be accepted by the Council of the People and then by the Council of the Commune.

At the end of February his term ended, but he did not have much time to relax. On April 11, with Iacopo Gianfigliazzi, Michele Castellani and Gino Capponi, he was elected to accompany Pope John XXIII, who was moving from Bologna to Rome, throughout the Florentine territory.

In that year and the following, the vengeance of the inexorable Maso degli Albizzi fell in a terrible way on the proscribed Alberti family, whose conditions were already tragic. With the pretext of true or imaginary conspiracies, justice was so hard on the Alberti that the history of Florence has never recorded such cruel punishment as was given this unfortunate family. In the proceedings following the conspiracies, Bernardo Guadagni was one of the most ferocious persecutors of the exiled Alberti. This is why he was chosen to be part of the committee which was to pronounce sentence against the Alberti family. Maso degli Albizzi was sure Bernardo would be a ruthless judge. Let us point out, however, that, on October 12, 1697, three centuries after what we are mentioning now, Giovambattista Guadagni would marry Maria Maddalena degli Alberti, and the couple was to have 13 children!

In the meantime, Bernardo was elected Vicar of S. Miniato at the end of 1412. In June 1413, just a few days after he finished his term, Bernardo was sent along with Iacopo Gianfigliazzi, Filippo Corsini and Michele Castellani, to meet Pope John XXIII in Siena. The Pope had been driven from Rome. Bernardo was supposed to express sympathy for his misfortune and to offer the aid of the Republic in reinstating John XXIII to power. On the other hand, he was required to tell the Pope that he would not be allowed to enter Florence. The city did not want to incur the wrath of the King of Naples for letting the Supreme Pontiff enter its walls.

This cautious but ungenerous behavior was not sufficient to avoid King Ladislao’s anger. The King of Naples accused the Florentines of having given hospitality to the Pope in the villa of the Bishops of Florence near Montughi. However, a new peace treaty was soon concluded in June 1414, in which the interest of the Pope was not taken into consideration. Bernardo was chosen to go to Bologna and recount what had happened to the Pontiff and to offer the apologies of the Republic of Florence for not having tried to help the Pope. Most of all, Florence did not want to have the Pope as an enemy, for the sake of having the King of Naples as a friend.

In the meantime, King Ladislao died. So Bernardo remained in Bologna two months, trying to reconcile the Pope with Queen Giovanna, who had succeeded her brother to the throne of Naples.

We all know that the Council of Constance decided that none of the three rival pontiffs of the time were the legal representative of the apostolic authority. The city of Bologna took advantage of this decision and, guided by Battista del Cannedolo and helped by Braccio da Montone, rebelled against the Pope and declared its political independence from papal authority. The Florentines were quite pleased about this and, in February 1416, they sent Bernardo Guadagni and Giovanni Arnolfi to congratulate the citizens of Bologna and to offer the Republic’s aid to maintain their regained freedom.

Beginning on June 10, 1416, Bernardo was podesta’ of Pisa for six months. It seems that when he finished his term he lived far from Florence for some time. We do not have any information on him for a few years, We know with certainty that he was in Provence in 1421. At that time, he was asked by the government of Florence to accompany Michele de’ Pazzi to complain to Iolande of Anjou. Iolande was regent of France for her son Louis, who was a minor. Bernardo was to object to the looting of some ships in one of her ports. The ships were loaded with wheat and other merchandise that belonged to Florentine citizens. He was soon back in Florence.

On July 5, 1422, along with Niccolo’ dei Nobili, Bernardo was sent as ambassador to Braccio dei Fortebracci, ruler of Perugia. He was given the responsibility of asking Braccio to cease his incursions against the city of Citta’ di Castello and to leave the town in peace. In 1423, he was appointed General Commissary of the army sent to Romagna to recapture the city of Forli’ from the hands of Filippo Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan.

In some of the books which contain information on Florentine families, and especially in the miscellanies of Scipione Ammirato, I find that, in that same year, Bernardo Guadagni was Commander in Chief of the Galleys of the Republic. However, I do not find mention of this in official documents. Moreover, it contradicts certain other information which states that Bernardo was Commissary until the end of August and then assumed the rule of Pistoia, with the title of Captain, for six months starting on October 1. After that, he assumed the rule of Pisa in September 1424. If it is true that he was Commander in Chief of the Galleys, it must be in some later year, perhaps in 1426 or 1427.

His name does not appear any more in public documents until the first month of 1428. At that time he was appointed Commissary General of the Army, replacing Giovanni Guicciardini. The latter had been recalled to Florence to be knighted, as a reward for the zeal he displayed and the good advice he gave to the commanders. Giovanni Guicciardini’s role was considered very important in the victory of Macalo’.

In April, a peace treaty was signed with the Duke of Milan. However, Bernardo remained in Mantua until the month of July, to be able to gather the troops that were scattered all over Lombardy and send them back to Tuscany. Perhaps an important reason for his extended stay in Mantua was that 4,120 florins were stolen from him there. That money was destined to pay the troops. Evidence of this theft can be found in a deliberation of the Guardians of the Law on April 20, 1429. This deliberation states that Bernardo Guadagni was acquitted from paying a debt of 430 florins he owed the city of Florence for rendered services, because of the great expenses he had sustained for his many embassies without having been adequately reimbursed, and for the theft he suffered during his last term as Commissary in Lombardy.

When war was declared against Lucca, Bernardo was sent on an embassy to Pope Martin V, on January 17 1430. He was chosen to explain why Florence had declared war and to ask the Pope’s alliance in the matter. Martin V, however, refused to join Florence in that war. In June, Bernardo was sent to Venice, with Piero Guicciardini. He was to divulge to the Venetian senate that the Duke of Milan had first encouraged the Florentines to start the war, and then had secretly helped their foe. He was to discuss with the Venetians whether or not it was appropriate to recall their common ambassador from Milan. The last official mission he was assigned, in January 1432, was to go to the Count of Urbino and ask him to fight in the pay of the Republic.

I have already mentioned elsewhere that Florence was torn apart by factions. The Albizzi family was at the head of one. These factions originated in the middle of the fourteenth century. I mentioned them while I was talking about the life of Bernardo’s father. At that time, Rosso and Uguccione dei Ricci were the antagonists of the Albizzi. When these citizens died and their familiy lost its importance, their place was taken by the Alberti. One, Messer Benedetto, had a very important role in the government of the Ciompi. During that government, Piero degli Albizzi was tortured and executed. Piero’s nephews accused Benedetto Alberti of not having used his great influence to free their uncle from the scaffold, even though he was not directly responsible for Piero’s execution. From this episode originated the great animosity of Messer Maso degli Albizzi against Benedetto and all the Alberti.

Maso’s vengeance was terrible. He had great political abilities and soon acquired great influence in the city. He used his power mainly to bring down the rival family. Through banishments and confiscations, he was able to achieve his aim in such a way that even to mention the name of the Alberti, or to lament their misfortune, was considered a crime.

After the fall of the Alberti, the Medici took their place in the faction opposed to the Albizzi. As long as Maso degli Albizzi was alive, no new move was made on either side. Maso was content with the prominence he had acquired in the Republic.

However, at his death his son Rinaldo became the new head of his party. And Rinaldo degli Albizzi had higher aims: he wanted to subdue Florence. However, Giovanni de’ Medici was able to keep him in check through legal means. Giovanni’s cautious opposition never allowed Rinaldo to acquire authority undesirable for a citizen of a free state. Also, the councilman Niccolo’ da Uzzano, for whom Rinaldo had great respect, helped to restrain Albizzi’s ambition. However, at the death of those two illustrious citizens, Rinaldo’s violent and impatient character knew no bounds. Cosimo dei Medici succeded his father as head of the party opposed to the Albizzi. Cosimo’s party had the support of the common people. And we all know that Cosimo de’ Medici was a fearful antagonist for Rinaldo. Rinaldo decided to rid himself of Cosimo. He thought he might be able to do so if one of his most trustworthy friends became Gonfalonier of Justice. It was the turn of a citizen of the district of S. Giovanni to be elected to that office for the two month period of September and October 1433. Not many well-known citizens of that district had remained available for that position. So Rinaldo hoped Bernardo Guadagni might be elected. To make sure that lack of money would not block Bernardo, Rinaldo himself payed all the debts Bernardo owed the city for taxes. Whether by corruption or by chance, Bernardo was elected to the office. Rinaldo ran immediately to his house to convince him to adhere to his scheme. Rinaldo did not need many words; Bernardo was ready to strike at the common enemy.

On September 7, Bernardo summoned Cosimo dei Medici to appear before him in the palace of the government (now known as Palazzo Vecchio). He immediately had him arrested and imprisoned in a little room at the bottom of the tower. When they heard about Cosimo’s arrest, the common people of Florence started rioting. At this, the government started to debate on the prisoner’s fate. Cosimo was able to corrupt Bernardo by giving him 1,000 florins, through a friend he had in the hospital of S. Maria Nuova. Tradition has it that Cosimo said: “Bernardo was an easy man to buy. I was ready to give him ten times as much.”

Anyway, Gonfalonier Guadagni changed his mind and stopped asking the death penalty for the Medici. Instead, he joined the party of those who thought banishment was enough for Cosimo. To halt the uprising of the people and to give more formality to Cosimo’s condemnation, Bernardo had the trumpets announce the meeting of the “parlamento” (general assembly). Then, he had Piazza della Signoria surrounded by many armed soldiers and friends of the government. Thus, he was able to have a committee appointed that agreed to his goal. Meanwhile, with the pretext of a slight indisposition, he obtained permission to return to his house to cure himself.

The committee ordered the banishment of Cosimo for five years, and with him they banished the most important of his adherents for longer or shorter periods. The chronicler Cambi recounts that, on the evening before leaving Florence, Cosimo went secretly to Bernardo’s house where he had dinner with the Gonfalonier.

Bernardo thought he was entitled to a reward from the Republic. He asked to be Captain of the city of Pisa and he obtained that office on March 11, 1434. He died in Pisa before September of the same year. He was lucky not to live long enough to see Cosimo’s return and the consequent ruin of the Guadagni family, which he himself had prepared.


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7. Vieri

Vieri was born after his father Vieri’s death in 1369. Few citizens were employed by the Republic of Florence as much as he was. He continuously had important offices and died gloriously for his city.

His first official mission was dated January 1395. He was sent to Conte da Carrara to ask him to fight in the pay of the Republic against Giangaleazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan. In February of the following year, he was chosen to go to Bologna, Ferrara and the Lords of Romagna and Marca d’Ancona for matters pertaining to that war. He was prior for the first time in 1399. He was one of the twelve “buonomini” when, in March of the following year, a peace treaty was signed with the Duke of Milan. It was more of a truce than a real peace treaty and war soon broke out again. In 1402, the Ten appointed Vieri Commissary for Bologna and Romagna, to recruit troops. In March 1403, he was sent to Ferrara. He was supposed to convince the Marquis of Ferrara to induce Alberigo da Barbiano to take the city of Bologna away from the Duke of Milan. Alberigo had boasted that he was able to do so. Vieri was chosen by the Republic to give him as much money as was needed to conquer Bologna. Soon Vieri had to go back to Ferrara, for the same reason.

In the meantime, Giangaleazzo Visconti died. The Republic decided to take advantage of this event. In September of that same year, Vieri was sent, along with Vanni Castellani, as ambassador to Alberigo da Barbiano, in Lombardy. He had to convince Alberigo to join forces with Francesco Novello da Carrara, Lord of the city of Padua, and help the cities of Lombardy to rebel against the Visconti family. Vieri was also to incite the Guelph party of Lombardy to reorganize their weakened faction and attack the Visconti sons, who were not as terrible as their late father.

On January 25, 1405, with Iacopo Salviati, Bishop of Fiesole, Tommaso Sacchetti, and Lorenzo Ridolfi, Vieri was sent as ambassador to Pope Innocent VII. He was to swear obedience to the Pontiff; exhort the Pope to allow the ambassadors of the antipope to come to Rome to deal with him and thus bring peace to the Church; and finally, to lament the fact that the Treasurer of Romagna, who was subject to the Pope, was protecting the Counts of Bagno and the Ubertini, old enemies of the Republic. Vieri also asked the Pontiff not to oppose the just punishment that the city of Florence wanted to inflict on those petty tyrants. As soon as he returned from Rome, he was sent to Arezzo, on April 25, where he was Captain of the city for six months. In December, he went to Siena, with Pierozzo Strozzi, to try and dissuade that city from helping Pisa.

On May 29, 1406, with Iacopo Gianfigliazzi, Vieri was sent as Commissary General of the Florentine army under the walls of Pisa. Hoping to conquer the city quickly, he promised great rewards to the soldiers, if they were able to take Pisa by assault. At night, the courageous Florentine soldiers swarmed the walls of the city, but the desperate valor of the defenders forced them to retreat. Therefore, the commissaries decided that the only way to conquer Pisa was by a tight blockade. After a while, food was hard to find in besieged Pisa. To be able to resist longer, the government of Pisa decided to keep only the soldiers in Pisa, and send everyone else out of the city. The few provisions left would thus have to feed fewer people and could be stretched longer. However, the Florentine commissaries, weary of besieging Pisa, were greatly displeased by this measure. So all the men from Pisa who left the city and who were mostly old and unable to defend the city any more, were hung from the trees around the city. The captured women instead had their clothes shortened to the waist and the lily, symbol of Florence, branded on their face with a red hot iron. Then they were forced to walk slowly all around the walls of the besieged city.

Shortly afterwards, Vieri requested to come back to Florence, because the campaign against Pisa had worn him out. On June 1, 1407, Vieri became podesta’ of Prato for six months. In 1408, he was Prior for a second time, for the months of March and April. In January 1409, he was assigned to accompany Iacopo Gianfigliazzi and Forese Sacchetti, sent as ambassadors to the Marquis of Ferrara and other feudal lords of Lombardy, to make arrangements for the Council that was to be held in Pisa. The Council was supposed to depose Pope Gregory XII and elect a successor, because Gregory XII did not seem to want to put an end to the schism that was dividing the Church, in spite of the promises he had made when he was elected.

This matter caused a new war with King Ladislao of Naples. The Republic wanted Bologna as an ally. Therefore they sent Vieri to Bologna, to offer help to Cardinal Baldassarre Cossa, legate of that city. Vieri also had to tell all the towns on the borders of the Bolognese territory to send troops to the cardinal if the latter requested them. When it was decided to wage all-out war with King Ladislao, Vieri was recalled from Cutigliano, where he was captain of the mountains of the territory of Pistoia. With Iacopo Salviati, he was sent as Counselor and Commissary General of the army to Malatesta da Pesaro, Commander in Chief of the Florentine army. The campaign went well for the Republic of Florence. Not only did the Florentine army recapture Orvieto and Viterbo and most of the Roman territory for the Church, but they were also able to conquer Rome from the hands of Ladislao. When the army of Malatesta entered the Eternal City, its inhabitants would have liked to have seen only the emblems of the Pope, i.e. the papal holy keys, at the head of the army. However, upon Vieri’s insistence, the Florentine soldiers came marching in behind the lily flag of Florence.

In 1411, I find two assignments given to Vieri. In the first one, on July 11, he was elected arbitrator, along with other men, to settle the controversies between the cities of Volterra and San Gimignano. The two cities were fighting over disputes about the borders of their territories. It seems that he performed his duty very well and was complimented for it. Around that time Vieri was sent as ambassador by the government of Florence, to Carlo Malatesta, Lord of Rimini, to exhort him to make peace with Pope John XXIII, to recognize the Pontiff’s authority and to stop molesting the territory of Bologna. This mission did not obtain the desired results. Malatesta pretended too much in return. However, Vieri was able to convince Maltesta to make peace with the Lord of Faenza. In 1412, Vieri was Captain of Pisa. At the end of the year, he was one of the sixteen Ward Captains. He held that office other times as well.

In August 1413, with Iacopo Gianfigliazzi and Giovanni Serristori, Vieri was sent as ambassador to Ladislao, King of Naples. He was to reproach the King for having made war against the Pope and for taking the territories of Campagna and Marittima and even the city of Rome away from him, forcing the Pope to flee. The Florentine ambassadors were to ask King Ladislao to return Rome and the other occupied areas to Pope John XXIII. In return, Florence would become King Ladislao’s ally, and the Church and the city of Siena would join in the alliance. The clever Ladislao did not refuse such offerings, pretending instead that he was willing to accept them. In return, he asked for some concessions he knew very well he could never have obtained otherwise. One of them was that the Republic of Venice be included in the league.

To that effect, Vieri Guadagni was sent on an embassy to the Senate of Venice, in February 1414. He was to try to convince Venice to join the alliance. He recalled how Florence had asked Pope John XXIII to become a peace mediator between Venice and the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund. But in the meantime, King Ladislao changed his mind, assembled a strong army, and marched against Florence. The Florentine were ill prepared to sustain a war against the powerful King of Naples. So they sent Vieri, along with Serristori, to Pope John XXIII, on May 19, 1414. Vieri was to explain to the Pope the danger Florence found itself in and to remind him that this danger was due mostly to the desire of the Republic to help him. He asked the Pope to satisfy Ladislao and allow him to obtain the Vicariate of the regions of Campagna and Marittima. The Pope refused. Then, the government of Florence decided to make a peace treaty with King Ladislao that would exclude the Pope. However, the King of Naples died two months later, and his death reconciled Florence to the Pope. Had he lived longer, Ladislao’s belligerent character and his immoderate ambition would have caused great trouble to all of Italy.

For the months of May and June 1416, Vieri was Gonfalonier of Justice. The main accomplishment of his government was the renewal of the alliance with Siena. In May 1418, the Republic sent him to attend the ill-fated marriage of the Marquis Niccolo, of Ferrara with Parisina dei Malatesta. Later, along with other citizens, Vieri was appointed by his government as guardian of Spinetta Malaspina. He was to protect him and his castles from the bullying of his relatives. One of Spinetta’s worst relatives was Leonardo, Marquis of Castel dell’Aquila, who had Niccolo’, Marquis of Verrucola, savagely murdered along with his wife and children. In June 1419, with the pretext of his guardianship, Vieri went secretly to Lunigiana to handle the purchase of the city of Livorno from Matteo Lomellini, podesta’ of the Republic of Genoa. However, the deal was not concluded because Genoa asked 160,000 gold florins for Livorno, and Florence thought the price was too high. At the end of the year, Vieri was sent to Genoa to complain to the Doge (head of the Republic of Genoa) about the troubles the Florentine merchants were subjected to in the port of Livorno and to attempt again for the purchase of the city.

In the meantime, we have more proof of the esteem in which Vieri Guadagni was held by everyone. On his deathbed in Florence, Cardinal Baldassarre Cossa, who had been Pope John XXIII, asked Vieri to be one of the executors of his will. The Republic trusted Vieri so fully that all the money left by the deceased clergyman was deposited in the Guadagni Bank.

Vieri was ambassador to Venice in 1421, but I do not know the purpose of this mission. It was perhaps related to the dreaded hostility of the Duke of Milan. In April 1423, Vieri went to Arezzo, where he was Captain of that city for six months.

As was expected, the war against Filippo Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan, soon broke out. It originated when Visconti took the city of Forli’ by fraud. The young Lord of Forli’ had put himself under the protection of the Florentine Republic. On May 24, 1423, therefore the Committee of Ten was created in Florence. It had great authority in all matters pertaining to war, peace or alliances. Vieri Guadagni was one of the ten members of the Committee. He was appointed by his colleagues to accept the alliance of Guidantonio da Montefeltro, Count of Urbino. His colleagues also sent him to Venice, with Giovanni Giugni, to explain to the Venetian senate the reasons that induced the Republic to wage war against the Duke of Milan. Vieri also had to convince the senate that it was time to stop the growing power of the Duke and that it was therefore advantageous to sign a treaty of alliance with Florence. As soon as he returned, he was selected, along with Niccolo’ Barbadori, to join the army as Commissary. However, that year no military operations were conducted. When the Marquis of Ferrara asked the Republic to send him ambassadors who, through his intercession, would make peace with Visconti, the Florentine government sent him Rinaldo degli Albizzi, Giuliano Davanzati and Vieri Guadagni. However, the agents of the Duke refused all proposals made by the Florentine ambassadors.

Vieri was back in Florence for just a few days when, on April 13, he was asked to go to Venice again as an ambassador. He declined. His reputation as a clever politician was so great that two of the ten asked the Priors of Florence to force him to go under penalty of a fine. The government of the Republic accepted Vieri’s excuses not to go to Venice, on the condition that he would go to Rimini, on April 18, to ask Carlo and Pandolfo Malatesta to come to Florence and take command of the Florentine army.

In May 1424, Vieri was elected General Commissary for the army. However he was recalled in July, because the Republic had appointed him, along with Rinaldo degli Albizzi, to carry out an embassy to Pope Martin V. He was appointed to convince the Pope to wage war against the Duke of Milan, and to take back the lands of the Church that Visconti had occupied in Romagna. Florence would offer military and financial aid to the Pope. The Republic also wanted the Pontiff to recapture Perugia from the hands of Braccio dei Fortebracci’s sons. In November, Vieri was re-elected to the Committee of Ten. However, he was assigned to remain on the Committee for a whole year, instead of the usual term of six months. He was appointed to accept the alliance of the Marquis of Monte S. Maria. In December, the Ten appointed Vieri Commissary, along with Matteo Castellani, of the fleet destined to fight Visconti on the Riviera of Genoa. Vieri was present at the victory of Sestri, on January 8, when the Florentines and their allies defeated the fleet of the Duke of Milan and occupied the Riviera. He also participated in the conquest of Portofino, where he accepted the alliance of Antonio Fieschi, Count of Lavagna.

The war continued in 1426 on a larger scale, as Venice had finally rallied with Florence against the Duke. Vieri was elected again to the Committee of Ten. He was appointed Commissary of the Army in the province of Arezzo, where Niccolo’ Piccinino had taken many castles of the Republic. Vieri recaptured several castles. However, while he was storming the fortress of Castelnuovo, close to Arezzo, bravely charging at the head of his soldiers and encouraging them to follow him up the enemy walls, a bombard ball hit him in the arm. He died of this wound on August 9, 1426.

His death was considered a public misfortune by the Republic. The councils ordered that a most stately funeral be organized and paid for by the city, and that all the government officials accompany his bier to his tomb, in the Guadagni chapel of S. Martino in the church of Santissima Annunziata.

Vieri was a rich banker and left his children wealthy. He loved his country and dedicated his life to serving it. However, he was one of the strongest supporters of the Albizzi faction and he never missed a chance to further their interests. He showed his support in the persistent persecution of the Alberti.


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8. Filippo

Filippo was born on March 11, 1404. He was the son of Bernardo Guadagni, the man who imprisoned Cosimo de’ Medici. Filippo dedicated himself to trade and owned merchant ships in partnership with Antonio degli Albizzi. He became an expert on navigation. The Republic gave him the command of two large men-of-war in 1429. With them he sailed to the shores of Flanders and England. When Cosimo de’ Medici returned from his exile, Filippo foresaw trouble and fled Florence.

He was right in doing so, because Cosimo made the children pay for their parents’ deeds. Filippo was sent into exile for ten years in Barcelona. A short while after, however, he was declared a rebel, with the pretext that, instead of going to Barcelona, he was living in Siena, forty miles from Florence. In 1453, he became a citizen of Siena, but this did not save him from being condemned again, on November 13, 1458. This time he was accused of participating in a plot, organized by Girolamo Machiavelli, to reform the state of Florence. He was declared a rebel again and all his properties were confiscated. This is the last information that I have in his regard.

I believe Filippo is that son of Bernardo Guadagni who the historian Cavalcanti says used to do all kinds of dishonest things. He outraged the Marquis Niccolo’ Malaspina so much because of what he did to one of his daughters, that the Marquis asked the Republic of Florence to punish Filippo accordingly. When the Republic failed to do so, the insulted Marquis rebelled against Florence and submitted his little state to the Marquis of Ferrara.*

*It is interesting to note, however, that four centuries later, the Marquis Azzolino Malaspina first married Aurora Guadagni, and then, when he became a widower, he married Aurora’s niece, Caterina Guadagni (translator’s note).


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9. Antonio

Antonio was Filippo’s younger brother. He was born in 1405 and was nicknamed “il Bigazza”. He was a very good knight and an expert in fighting. He was one of the victors in the joust celebrated in Piazza Santa Croce on April 17, 1429. He fought bravely for Florence, first in the war against Filippo Maria Visconti, then in the war against Paolo Guinigi, Lord of Lucca. However his military career was abruptly ended when Cosimo de’ Medici was called back from exile in 1434.

Antonio was included in the group of leaders of the Albizzi faction, who were all severely punished by the Medici. Like his brother, he was sent into exile for ten years in Barcelona. Like Filippo Guadagni, Antonio was declared a rebel under the pretext that he did not go to Barcelona. While he was traveling towards the Kingdom of Naples, to enroll in the army of Iacopo Caldora, he was arrested in Fermo in 1436 and transferred to Florence. With the excuse that he had plotted against the Republic, he was beheaded on September 4. So great was the hatred of the Medici for the Guadagni, that on November 13, 1458, Antonio was again declared a rebel for having participated in Girolamo Machiavelli’s plot. However, the prosecutors remembered that Antonio had already been executed 22 years earlier, and were obliged to take the humiliating measure of revoking the decree.


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10. Francesco

Francesco was born on February 18, 1400. He was Vieri’s son and Simone’s brother. When he was still very young he was engaged to Caterina, daughter of Messer Matteo degli Scolari. Caterina’s paternal uncle was the famous Pippo Spano, Commander in Chief of all the armies of the King of Hungary. Francesco was sent to Hungary to learn the military skills under Pippo’s command. He took part in some of the famous campaigns against the Turks. When he returned to Florence, he was one of the Priors in 1427. However, Cosimo de’ Medici’s return in 1434 and the consequent fall of the Albizzi faction ended his political career, like it did those of the other Guadagni. Nevertheless, no one dared to condemn him because no fault was found in him. So Francesco remained in Florence, unhappy but resigned.

One day, Friar Antonio Neri d’Arezzo, who was a fierce enemy of the Florentines and a friend of the Duke of Milan, wrote Francesco a letter, in which he invited Francesco to come to Fiumalbo and discuss how to return the Albizzi faction to Florence and overthrow the government. Francesco did not have the character of a conspirator, and he revealed everything to the Florentine government. He was told to pretend to accept Friar Antonio’s idea and to go to Fiumalbo and then refer everything that was said there. Francesco did as he was told, heard all the proposals of the friar and returned to Florence without committing himself. In Florence he recounted everything to the government. However, some imprudent words he uttered to Branca Brancacci were disclosed to the Podesta’. The latter suspected Francesco of being two-faced and had him arrested and condemned to death. But the Gonfalonier of Justice, who happened to be Cosimo de’ Medici himself, said that there was not enough proof to condemn Francesco to death and that if Guadagni was to be beheaded, Cosimo would give up the Gonfalon of Justice.

Through Cosimo’s intercession, Francesco, his brothers and all their descendants were instead numbered among the magnates, which meant they were excluded forever from public life in the Republic of Florence. [note of the translator: Vieri Guadagni, of Guitto, (1907-1994), once said jokingly that he was prouder the Guadagni were classified as Florentine nobles, than of their title of Marquis of San Leolino, because the former came over two centuries earlier.] Furthermore, Francesco was jailed in the Stinche prison, in the magnate sector, for ten years, under harsh conditions. He had been imprisoned for four years when he was condemned by the podesta’ on October 30, 1438, to pay a fine of 3,000 lire. The reason was that Francesco, a noble, had slightly wounded Andrea Baldesi, his commoner cellmate, with a pair of scissors during an argument. [This has to do with the old anti-noble legislation of late 13th century. For crimes committed by magnates or nobles against commoners, penalties were very severe.]

When Francesco had served his jail term in the Stinche, he was sent into exile to Bologna, where he hoped to have a calmer life. When the catasto was compiled in 1451, he was still living in Bologna. He had the clerk write in the register that he was living in exile in great poverty, with his six children. He must have died a short while after, certainly before the new catasto was compiled in 1457.


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11. Migliore

Migliore was Vieri’s son. He was born in 1403. He was elected to public office in 1431 and in 1433. He was one of the twelve “buonomini” in 1434. However in that same year, he was numbered among the nobles, i.e., he was excluded from public office, like the other members of the Guadagni family.

It seems that Migliore left Florence, which was not very safe for him anymore. He was staying in one of his properties, close to Montereggi (a few miles from Florence), when in April 1440, some armed men of Niccolo’ Piccinino, Commander of the army of the Duke of Milan, arrived in his neighborhood. He was guaranteed safety if he went to Piccinino’s camp, in Pulicciano in Mugello. Migliore went but he was made a prisoner. A few days later he was freed, but he chose to remain in Piccinino’s camp and followed his army to the Casentino. He changed his mind only when he saw Piccinino’s army defeated by the Florentines. At this point, Migliore pretended that he had been forced to join the Duke of Milan’s army. The Captain of the People of Florence did not believe him. However, he was not very severe with Migliore, because he had heard he had a weak mind. So, on June 27, 1440, he condemned Migliore to only three years of exile. Migliore himself could choose if he wanted to go to the Marca of Ancona or to Venice. Every four months he had to send the official confirmation of his residence there. It seems Migliore did not fulfill this last obligation and was condemned again. When the catasto was made in 1451, Migliore was still in exile. I believe he died before 1457, because his name is not mentioned in the catasto of 1457.


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12. Giovambatista

Giovambatista was born in Siena. He was the son of Filippo Guadagni and grandson of Bernardo. He became a monk with the name of Brother Bernardo. He led a very penitent life. He was known for his great humility; he always asked the lowest and most degrading chores in the monastery. Worn out by abstinences and mortifications, he died very young. He was so fondly remembered for his virtues that his name figures in the catalogue of the blessed of the Church.


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